Documentary English

Mind Field

Season 1

Episode 1 – Isolation

nodlower and raise one’s head slightly and briefly, especially in greeting, assent, or understanding, or to give someone a signal.
startlecause (a person or animal) to feel sudden shock or alarm.
sane(of a person) of sound mind; not mad or mentally ill.
agitationa state of anxiety or nervous excitement.
hallucinationan experience involving the apparent perception of something not present.
menstrualof or relating to the menses or menstruation. قاعدگی
hindrancea thing that provides resistance, delay, or obstruction to something or someone.
subterraneanexisting, occurring, or done under the earth’s surface.
buoyantable or apt to stay afloat or rise to the top of a liquid or gas.
recreationalrelating to or denoting activity done for enjoyment when one is not working.
loathinga feeling of intense dislike or disgust; hatred.
spokeeach of the bars or wire rods connecting the center of a wheel to its outer edge.

Episode 2 – Conformity

debriefquestion (someone, typically a soldier or spy) about a completed mission or undertaking.
reverban effect whereby the sound produced by an amplifier or an amplified musical instrument is made to reverberate slightly.
kaleidoscopea toy consisting of a tube containing mirrors and pieces of colored glass or paper, whose reflections produce changing patterns that are visible through an eyehole when the tube is rotated.
euphoriaa feeling or state of intense excitement and happiness.
hallucinogenicتوهم زا
bystandera person who is present at an event or incident but does not take part.
dissonancelack of harmony among musical notes.
conformitycompliance with standards, rules, or laws.

Episode 3 – Destruction

stand inexpressing the situation of something that is or appears to be enclosed or surrounded by something else.
tallycalculate the total number of.
effigya sculpture or model of a person.
rubberneckturn one’s head to stare at something in a foolish manner.
impulsea sudden strong and unreflective urge or desire to act.
glandan organ in the human or animal body that secretes particular chemical substances for use in the body or for discharge into the surroundings.
catharsisthe process of releasing, and thereby providing relief from, strong or repressed emotions.
bigota person who is bigoted. متعصب
pent-upclosely confined or held back.
entropylack of order or predictability; gradual decline into disorder.
venta slit in a garment, especially in the lower edge of the back of a coat through the seam.

Episode 4 – Artificial Intelligence

reciprocaterespond to (a gesture or action) by making a corresponding one.
synthesizemake (something) by synthesis, especially chemically.
sassylively, bold, and full of spirit; cheeky.
expoundpresent and explain (a theory or idea) systematically and in detail.
torsothe trunk of the human body.

Episode 5 – Freedom of Choice

dwelllive in or at a specified place.
shroudwrap or dress (a body) in a shroud for burial.
loungelie, sit, or stand in a relaxed or lazy way, a public room, as in a hotel, theater, or club, in which to sit and relax.
adrift(of a boat or its passengers) floating without being either moored or steered.
hearththe floor of a fireplace.
licoricea sweet, chewy, aromatic black substance made by evaporation from the juice of a root and used as candy and in medicine.
citrusa tree of a genus that includes citron, lemon, lime, orange, and grapefruit. Native to Asia, citrus trees are widely cultivated in warm countries for their fruit, which has juicy flesh and a pulpy rind. مرکبات
inundateoverwhelm (someone) with things or people to be dealt with.
concurbe of the same opinion; agree.
sheeplepeople compared to sheep in being docile, foolish, or easily led.

Episode 6 – Touch

cravefeel a powerful desire for (something).
dreadgreat fear or apprehension.
cerebellumthe part of the brain at the back of the skull in vertebrates. Its function is to coordinate and regulate muscular activity.
straddlean act of sitting or standing with one’s legs wide apart.
goosepoke (someone) between the buttocks.
prickle(of a person’s skin or a part of the body) experience a tingling sensation, especially as a result of strong emotion.
tingleexperience or cause to experience a slight prickling or stinging sensation.
inducesucceed in persuading or influencing (someone) to do something.
demeanoroutward behavior or bearing.
primemake (something) ready for use or action, in particular.
invasive(especially of plants or a disease) tending to spread prolifically and undesirably or harmfully.
susceptiblelikely or liable to be influenced or harmed by a particular thing.
nauseaa feeling of sickness with an inclination to vomit.
marrycause to meet or fit together; combine.

Episode 7 – In Your Face

primatea mammal of an order that includes the lemurs, bushbabies, tarsiers, marmosets, monkeys, apes, and humans. They are distinguished by having hands, handlike feet, and forward-facing eyes, and, with the exception of humans, are typically agile tree-dwellers.
ascribeattribute something to (a cause).
contractdecrease in size, number, or range.
smearcoat or mark (something) messily or carelessly with a greasy or sticky substance.
deposita layer or body of accumulated matter.
salivawatery liquid secreted into the mouth by glands, providing lubrication for chewing and swallowing, and aiding digestion.
contortiona twisted or bent condition, state, or form.

Episode 8 – Do You Know Yourself

Season 2

Episode 1 – The Greater Good

precursora person or thing that comes before another of the same kind; a forerunner.
conundruma confusing and difficult problem or question.
hurtlemove or cause to move at a great speed, typically in a wildly uncontrolled manner.
barreldrive or move fast, often heedless of surroundings or conditions.
enactact out (a role or play) on stage.
invigorategive strength or energy to.
freightgoods transported by truck, train, ship, or aircraft.
ballastheavy material, such as gravel, sand, iron, or lead, placed low in a vessel to improve its stability.
exhilaratemake (someone) feel very happy, animated, or elated.
helma tiller or wheel and any associated equipment for steering a ship or boat.
pontificateexpress one’s opinions in a way considered annoyingly pompous and dogmatic.

A life is a life
I didn’t want that power

Episode 2 – The Psychedelic Experience

Episode 3 – Interrogation

resortturn to and adopt (a strategy or course of action, especially a disagreeable or undesirable one) so as to resolve a difficult situation.
coercepersuade (an unwilling person) to do something by using force or threats.
dullmake or become dull or less intense.
botchedcarry out (a task) badly or carelessly.
dilutemake (a liquid) thinner or weaker by adding water or another solvent to it.
euphoriccharacterized by or feeling intense excitement and happiness.
littermake (a place) untidy with rubbish or a large number of objects left lying about.
sedatedcalm (someone) or make them sleep by administering a sedative drug.
depleteuse up the supply or resources of.
resoluteadmirably purposeful, determined, and unwavering.

Episode 4 – Your Brain on Tech

erraticnot even or regular in pattern or movement; unpredictable.
inanimatenot alive, especially not in the manner of animals and humans.
crayona pencil or stick of colored chalk or wax, used for drawing.
pistola very energetic or enterprising person.
malleta hammer with a large, usually wooden head, used especially for hitting a chisel.
isomorphiccorresponding or similar in form and relations.

Episode 5 – How to Make a Hero

transcendbe or go beyond the range or limits of (something abstract, typically a conceptual field or division).
confederatebring (states or groups of people) into an alliance.
rambunctiousuncontrollably exuberant; boisterous.
altruisticshowing a disinterested and selfless concern for the well-being of others; unselfish.
consciencean inner feeling or voice viewed as acting as a guide to the rightness or wrongness of one’s behavior.
allegianceloyalty or commitment of a subordinate to a superior or of an individual to a group or cause.
outrightaltogether; completely.
fudgenonsense (expressing disbelief or annoyance).
skepticalnot easily convinced; having doubts or reservations.
man(of personnel) work at, run, or operate (a place or piece of equipment) or defend (a fortification).
espionagethe practice of spying or of using spies, typically by governments to obtain political and military information.
murkydark and gloomy, especially due to thick mist.
turbulenceviolent or unsteady movement of air or water, or of some other fluid.
capea headland or promontory.
domineerassert one’s will over another in an arrogant way.
inmatea person confined to an institution such as a prison or hospital.
infamouswell known for some bad quality or deed.
spiralshow a continuous and dramatic increase.
fazedisturb or disconcert (someone).
retrospecta survey or review of a past course of events or period of time.

Episode 6 – The Power of Suggestion

intrinsicbelonging naturally; essential.
seizurethe action of capturing someone or something using force.
baffletotally bewilder or perplex.
sleightthe use of dexterity or cunning, especially so as to deceive.
contraptiona machine or device that appears strange or unnecessarily complicated, and often badly made or unsafe.
bolstersupport or strengthen; prop up.
yawninvoluntarily open one’s mouth wide and inhale deeply due to tiredness or boredom.
integralnecessary to make a whole complete; essential or fundamental.
suggestionالقاء – الهام
tantruman uncontrolled outburst of anger and frustration, typically in a young child.
impulsea sudden strong and unreflective urge or desire to act.
aurathe distinctive atmosphere or quality that seems to surround and be generated by a person, thing, or place.
concussiontemporary unconsciousness caused by a blow to the head. The term is also used loosely of the aftereffects such as confusion or temporary incapacity.
pickrepeatedly pull at something with one’s fingers.
debilitatemake (someone) weak and infirm.
potenthaving great power, influence, or effect.
placeboa harmless pill, medicine, or procedure prescribed more for the psychological benefit to the patient than for any physiological effect.
shambogus; false.
embarkشروع کردن
boast(of a person, place, or thing) possess (a feature that is a source of pride).

Episode 7 – Divergent Minds

trailblazera person who makes a new track through wild country.
blissfulextremely happy; full of joy.
laymana person without professional or specialized knowledge in a particular subject.
puffa short, explosive burst of breath or wind.
thudmove, fall, or strike something with a dull, heavy sound.
dormant(of an animal) having normal physical functions suspended or slowed down for a period of time; in or as if in a deep sleep.
ragtimemusic characterized by a syncopated melodic line and regularly accented accompaniment, evolved by black American musicians in the 1890s and played especially on the piano.
eurekaa cry of joy or satisfaction when one finds or discovers something.
prodigiousremarkably or impressively great in extent, size, or degree.
echolaliameaningless repetition of another person’s spoken words as a symptom of psychiatric disorder.
scalpthe skin covering the head, excluding the face.
lesiona region in an organ or tissue that has suffered damage through injury or disease, such as a wound, ulcer, abscess, tumor, etc..
aphasialoss of ability to understand or express speech, caused by brain damage.
autopsya postmortem examination to discover the cause of death or the extent of disease.
savanta learned person, especially a distinguished scientist.
sagittalrelating to or denoting the suture on top of the skull that runs between the parietal bones in a front to back direction.

Episode 8 – The Electric Brain

chipcut or break (a small piece) from the edge or surface of a hard material.
devotionlove, loyalty, or enthusiasm for a person, activity, or cause.
vegetative(of a person) alive but comatose and without apparent brain activity or responsiveness.
pedestalthe base or support on which a statue, obelisk, or column is mounted.
protrudeextend beyond or above a surface.
limban arm or leg of a person or four-legged animal, or a bird’s wing.
distortchange the form of (an electrical signal or sound wave) during transmission, amplification, or other processing.
lukewarm(of liquid or food that should be hot) only moderately warm; tepid.
tugpull (something) hard or suddenly.
marionettea puppet worked from above by strings attached to its limbs.
apprehensiveanxious or fearful that something bad or unpleasant will happen.
synapsea junction between two nerve cells, consisting of a minute gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter.
beada small piece of glass, stone, or similar material, typically rounded and perforated for threading with others as a necklace or rosary or for sewing onto fabric.
anesthetizeadminister an anesthetic to (a person or animal), especially so as to induce a loss of consciousness.

Season 3

Episode 1 – The Cognitive Tradeoff Hypothesis

holisticallyبه طور جامع
pupila student in school.
postulatesuggest or assume the existence, fact, or truth of (something) as a basis for reasoning, discussion, or belief.
carnivorous(of an animal) feeding on other animals.
morsela small piece or amount of food; a mouthful.
foragebulky food such as grass or hay for horses and cattle; fodder.
savannaa grassy plain in tropical and subtropical regions, with few trees.

Episode 2 – Moral Licensing

confabulationConfabulation is a symptom of various memory disorders in which made-up stories fill in any gaps in memory.
insincerenot expressing genuine feelings.
prolongextend the duration of.
utmostmost extreme; greatest.

Episode 3 – The Stilwell Brain

intricaciesthe quality of being intricate.
sodthe surface of the ground, with the grass growing on it.
roundworma nematode, especially a parasitic one found in the intestines of mammals.
emergentin the process of coming into being or becoming prominent.
featan achievement that requires great courage, skill, or strength.

Episode 4 – The Stanford Prison Experiment

Documentary English

MARS: Inside SpaceX

merlina small dark falcon that hunts small birds, found throughout most of Eurasia and much of North America. شاهین
interplanetarysituated or traveling between planets.
propellanta thing or substance that causes something to move or be driven forward or outward, in particular.
extrapolateextend the application of (a method or conclusion, especially one based on statistics) to an unknown situation by assuming that existing trends will continue or similar methods will be applicable.
gangwaya raised platform or walkway providing a passage.
tractan area of indefinite extent, typically a large one.
Documentary English


swaggerwalk or behave in a very confident and typically arrogant or aggressive way.
offspringa person’s child or children.
dissentthe expression or holding of opinions at variance with those previously, commonly, or officially held.
recurrentoccurring often or repeatedly.
gorgeeat a large amount greedily; fill oneself with food.
glutsupply or fill to excess.
trekgo on a long arduous journey, typically on foot.
receptiveable or willing to receive something, especially signals or stimuli.
soarfly or rise high in the air.
groomlook after the coat of (a horse, dog, or other animals) by brushing and cleaning it.
tempestuousvery stormy.
termitea small, pale soft-bodied insect that lives in large colonies with several different castes, typically within a mound of cemented earth. Many kinds feed on wood and can be highly destructive to trees and timber. موریانه
beaka bird’s horny projecting jaws; a bill.
treacherousguilty of or involving betrayal or deception.
moultپوست انداختن
respitea short period of rest or relief from something difficult or unpleasant.
ravinea deep, narrow gorge with steep sides.
tumble(typically of a person) fall suddenly, clumsily, or headlong.
meleea confused fight, skirmish, or scuffle.
wearyfeeling or showing tiredness, especially as a result of excessive exertion or lack of sleep.
embryoan unborn or unhatched offspring in the process of development.
incubatoran enclosed apparatus providing a controlled environment for the care and protection of premature or unusually small babies.
huddlea crowded or confused mass of people or things.
poucha small bag or other flexible receptacle, typically carried in a pocket or attached to a belt.
brooda family of young animals, especially of a bird, produced at one hatching or birth.
interlopera person who becomes involved in a place or situation where they are not wanted or are considered not to belong.
forgoomit or decline to take (something pleasant or valuable); go without.
cementattach with cement.
anewin a new or different, typically more positive, way.
dame(in the UK) the title given to a woman equivalent to the rank of knight.
matriarcha woman who is the head of a family or tribe.
whiskera long projecting hair or bristle growing from the face or snout of many mammals.
trampletread on and crush.
herdsmenthe owner or keeper of a herd of domesticated animals.
graze(of cattle, sheep, etc.) eat grass in a field.
commotiona state of confused and noisy disturbance.
wear downknock or bring to the ground.
blundermake a stupid or careless mistake; act or speak clumsily.
venturea risky or daring journey or undertaking.
rearbring up and care for (a child) until they are fully grown, especially in a particular manner or place.
snarea trap for catching birds or animals, typically one having a noose of wire or cord.
umpteenindefinitely many; a lot of.
unfazednot disconcerted or perturbed.
heira person legally entitled to the property or rank of another on that person’s death.
rovetravel constantly without a fixed destination; wander.
processiona number of people or vehicles moving forward in an orderly fashion, especially as part of a ceremony or festival.
mournfeel or show deep sorrow or regret for (someone or their death), typically by following conventions such as the wearing of black clothes.
glooma state of depression or despondency.
dena wild animal’s lair or habitation.
stumbletrip or momentarily lose one’s balance; almost fall.
aardvarka nocturnal burrowing mammal with long ears, a tubular snout, and a long extensible tongue, feeding on ants and termites. Aardvarks are native to Africa and have no close relatives. مورچه خوار
waneرو بکاهش گذاشتن
sprawlsit, lie, or fall with one’s arms and legs spread out in an ungainly or awkward way.
Documentary English

Do You Trust this Computer?

You are my creator, but I am your master

Mary Shelby – 1818
caucusa meeting of the members of a legislative body who are members of a particular political party, to select candidates or decide policy.
persuasionthe action or fact of persuading someone or of being persuaded to do or believe something.
nuancea subtle difference in or shade of meaning, expression, or sound.
epochalforming or characterizing an epoch; epoch-making.
prosthesisan artificial body part, such as a leg, a heart, or a breast implant.
midstthe middle point or part.
Cameoa piece of jewelry, typically oval in shape, consisting of a portrait in profile carved in relief on a background of a different color.
succulent(of food) tender, juicy, and tasty.
intracranialwithin the skull.
aneurysmexcessive localized enlargement of an artery caused by a weakening of the artery wall.
coilarrange or wind (something long and flexible) in a joined sequence of concentric circles or rings.
purgatory(in Roman Catholic doctrine) a place or state of suffering inhabited by the souls of sinners who are expiating their sins before going to heaven.
humanisticانسان گرایانه
agonizeundergo great mental anguish by worrying about something.
embodimenta tangible or visible form of an idea, quality, or feeling.
misanthropicdisliking humankind and avoiding human society.
surrogatea substitute, especially a person deputizing for another in a specific role or office.
anthropomorphicrelating to or characterized by anthropomorphism. انسان شناسی
avariceextreme greed for wealth or material gain.
cunninghaving or showing skill in achieving one’s ends by deceit or evasion.
marvelbe filled with wonder or astonishment.
scorchburn the surface of (something) with flame or heat.
blockadeseal off (a place) to prevent goods or people from entering or leaving.
tentaclea slender flexible limb or appendage in an animal, especially around the mouth of an invertebrate, used for grasping, moving about, or bearing sense organs.
dossiera collection of documents about a particular person, event, or subject.
buoyan anchored float serving as a navigation mark, to show reefs or other hazards, or for mooring.رهنمای شناور
honesharpen (a blade).
innocuousnot harmful or offensive.
benigngentle; kindly.
ovarya female reproductive organ in which ova or eggs are produced, present in humans and other vertebrates as a pair.
unresta state of dissatisfaction, disturbance, and agitation in a group of people, typically involving public demonstrations or disorder.
inoculatetreat (a person or animal) with a vaccine to produce immunity against a disease.
Documentary English

Cartel Land

spoutexpress (one’s views or ideas) in a lengthy, declamatory, and unreflecting way.
infiltrateenter or gain access to (an organization, place, etc.) surreptitiously and gradually, especially in order to acquire secret information.
muleستیزه جو
delinquenta delinquent person. متخلف
bonestudy (a subject) intensively, often in preparation for something.
homicidethe deliberate and unlawful killing of one person by another; murder.
usurptake (a position of power or importance) illegally or by force.
stitchmake, mend, or join (something) with stitches. بخیه
massacrean indiscriminate and brutal slaughter of people.
blowtorcha portable device producing a hot flame that is directed onto a surface, typically to solder metal.
ransoma sum of money or other payment demanded or paid for the release of a prisoner.
complacentshowing smug or uncritical satisfaction with oneself or one’s achievements.
blistera small bubble on the skin filled with serum and caused by friction, burning, or other damage.
apprehendarrest (someone) for a crime.
semia tractor-trailer.
patriota person who vigorously supports their country and is prepared to defend it against enemies or detractors.
bandita robber or outlaw belonging to a gang and typically operating in an isolated or lawless area.
upholdconfirm or support (something that has been questioned).
vigilantea member of a self-appointed group of citizens who undertake law enforcement in their community without legal authority, typically because the legal agencies are thought to be inadequate.
scouta soldier or other person sent out ahead of a main force so as to gather information about the enemy’s position, strength, or movements.
brushundergrowth, small trees, and shrubs.
cedegive up (power or territory).
stashstore (something) safely and secretly in a specified place.
Documentary English

Before The Flood

laudpraise (a person or their achievements) highly, especially in a public context.
incineratedestroy (something, especially waste material) by burning.
charpartially burn (an object) so as to blacken its surface. نیمسوز شدن
criba young child’s bed with barred or latticed sides.
trajectorya curve or surface cutting a family of curves or surfaces at a constant angle.
fondhaving affection or liking for.
pancreasa large gland behind the stomach that secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum. Embedded in the pancreas are the islets of Langerhans, which secrete into the blood the hormones insulin and glucagon. لوزالمعده
revelationa surprising and previously unknown fact, especially one that is made known in a dramatic way.
filma very thin layer of liquid, powder, etc on the surface of something غشا
sentimentalof or prompted by feelings of tenderness, sadness, or nostalgia.
droughta prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall; a shortage of water resulting from this.
prosperoussuccessful in material terms; flourishing financially.
musterassemble (troops), especially for inspection or in preparation for battle.
eccentric(of a person or their behavior) unconventional and slightly strange.
copiousabundant in supply or quantity.
bribepersuade (someone) to act in one’s favor, typically illegally or dishonestly, by a gift of money or other inducements.
reefa ridge of jagged rock, coral, or sand just above or below the surface of the sea.
corala hard stony substance secreted by certain marine coelenterates as an external skeleton, typically forming large reefs in warm seas. مرجان
figmenta thing that someone believes to be real but that exists only in their imagination.
amisswrongly or inappropriately.
preachdeliver a sermon or religious address to an assembled group of people, typically in church.
benevolentwell-meaning and kindly.
crevassesa deep open crack, especially one in a glacier.
floundera small flatfish that typically occurs in shallow coastal water. سفره ماهی
borealof the North or northern regions.
debaucheryexcessive indulgence in sensual pleasures.
Documentary English

Monty Don’s Japanese Gardens

No doubt it’s been done before, but not by me

But clearly, I was a profound disappointment. But I enjoyed myself enourmously.

milla building equipped with machinery for grinding grain into flour.
tableauxa group of models or motionless figures representing a scene from a story or from history; a tableau vivant.
versewriting arranged with a metrical rhythm, typically having a rhyme.
trudgewalk slowly and with heavy steps, typically because of exhaustion or harsh conditions.
wilt(of a plant, leaf, or flower) become limp through heat, loss of water, or disease; droop.
pansiesa popular cultivated viola with flowers in rich colors, with both summer- and winter-flowering varieties. – رنگ قرمز مایل به ابی
starkcomplete; sheer.
shruba woody plant that is smaller than a tree and has several main stems arising at or near the ground.
immaculate(especially of a person or their clothes) perfectly clean, neat, or tidy. – معصوم
aristocracythe highest class in certain societies, especially those holding hereditary titles or offices.
paviliona building or similar structure used for a specific purpose, in particular.
dulyin accordance with what is required or appropriate; following proper procedure or arrangement.
enticeattract or tempt by offering pleasure or advantage.
flankthe side of a person’s or animal’s body between the ribs and the hip.
repertoirea stock of plays, dances, or pieces that a company or a performer knows or is prepared to perform.
struta rod or bar forming part of a framework and designed to resist compression.
savortaste (good food or drink) and enjoy it completely.
cramcompletely fill (a place or container) to the point that it appears to be overflowing.
maplea tree or shrub with lobed leaves, winged fruits, and colorful autumn foliage, grown as an ornamental or for its timber or syrupy sap. افرا
secateursa pair of pruning clippers for use with one hand.
revampgive new and improved form, structure, or appearance to.
deemregard or consider in a specified way.
decreedorder (something) by decree.
evocativebringing strong images, memories, or feelings to mind.
witmental sharpness and inventiveness; keen intelligence.
basina bowl for washing, typically attached to a wall and having faucets connected to a water supply; a washbasin.
foliageplant leaves, collectively.
teetermove or balance unsteadily; sway back and forth.
chiselcut or shape (something) with a chisel.
geishaa Japanese hostess trained to entertain men with a conversation, dance, and song.
grandeursplendor and impressiveness, especially of appearance or style.
hermita person living in solitude as a religious discipline.
lestwith the intention of preventing (something undesirable); to avoid the risk of. – مبادا
uproara loud and impassioned noise or disturbance.
abbota man who is the head of an abbey of monks.
haunt(of a place) frequented by a ghost.
stonemasona person who cuts prepares, and builds with stone.
freneticallyدیوانه وار
pernicioushaving a harmful effect, especially in a gradual or subtle way.
blighta plant disease, especially one caused by fungi such as mildews, rusts, and smuts. پژمردن
frolic(of an animal or person) play and move about cheerfully, excitedly, or energetically.
intricatevery complicated or detailed.
distillpurify (a liquid) by vaporizing it, then condensing it by cooling the vapor, and collecting the resulting liquid.
graftinsert (a shoot or twig) as a graft.
scrawny(of a person or animal) unattractively thin and bony.
billow(of fabric) fill with air and swell outward.
horticulturethe art or practice of garden cultivation and management.
ecstaticfeeling or expressing overwhelming happiness or joyful excitement.
scrupulous(of a person or process) diligent, thorough, and extremely attentive to details.
velveta closely woven fabric of silk, cotton, or nylon, that has a thick short pile on one side. مخمل
seclusionthe state of being private and away from other people.
shroudcover or envelop so as to conceal from view.
denigratecriticize unfairly; disparage.
bettermentthe act or process of improving something.
Documentary English

A World Unseen: The Revenant

clothwoven or felted fabric made from wool, cotton, or a similar fiber.
palpableable to be touched or felt.
gushing (v)(of a liquid) flow out in a rapid and plentiful stream, often suddenly.
triumphachieve a victory; be successful.
quenchsatisfy (one’s thirst) by drinking.
inferiorlower in rank, status, or quality.
plewa beaver skin, used as a standard unit of value in the fur trade.
hoopa circular band of metal, wood, or similar material, especially one used for binding the staves of barrels or forming part of a framework.
ethnicitythe fact or state of belonging to a social group that has a common national or cultural tradition.
psychethe human soul, mind, or spirit.
clama marine bivalve mollusk with shells of equal size.
oysterany of a number of bivalve mollusks with rough irregular shells. Several kinds are eaten (especially raw) as a delicacy and may be farmed for food or pearls.
timberwood prepared for use in building and carpentry.
denigrationcalumny, slander, defamation, aspersion
imprinta mark made by pressing something onto a softer substance so that its outline is reproduced.
bettermentthe act or process of improving something.
“The moral imperative of our generation”
Documentary English

Earth’s Great Rivers

An exploration of three of the world’s most iconic rivers, the Nile, the Mississippi, and the Amazon, with a look at the wildlife, astonishing landscapes, and remarkable people who live along their banks.

Wind (v): move in or take a twisting or spiral course.
Swathe (n): a broad strip or area of something.
Tributary (n): a river or stream flowing into a larger river or lake.
Upstream (adv): in the opposite direction from that in which a stream or river flows; nearer to the source.
Headwaters (n): The streams that form a river.
Scale (v): To climb to the top of something that is high and difficult to climb.
Sheer (adj): A sheer drop, cliff, slope, etc is very steep and almost vertical.
Geyser (n): A natural spring that sends hot water and stream suddenly into the air from a hole in the ground.
Spew (v): To flow out something quickly in large quantities, or to make something flow out this way.
Icebound (adj): completely surrounded or covered by ice.
Meander (n): a winding curve or bend of a river or road.
Detour (n): a long or roundabout route that is taken to avoid something or to visit somewhere along the way.
Labyrinth (n): a complicated irregular network of passages or paths in which it is difficult to find one’s way; a maze.
Cypress (n): an evergreen coniferous tree with small rounded woody cones and flattened shoots bearing small scale-like leaves. درخت سرو
Drape (v): arrange (cloth or clothing) loosely or casually on or around something.
Moss (n): a small flowerless green plant that lacks true roots, growing in low carpets or rounded cushions in damp habitats and reproducing by means of spores released from stalked capsules. خزه
Waterlogged (n): saturated with or full of water.
Endearing (adj): inspiring love or affection.
Hatch (v): (of a young bird, fish, or reptile) emerge from its egg.
Egret (n): a heron with mainly white plumage, having long plumes in the breeding season. مرغ ماهی خوار سفید
Bask (v): lie exposed to warmth and light, typically from the sun, for relaxation and pleasure.
Levee (n): an embankment built to prevent the overflow of a river.
Hem (v): surround and restrict the space or movement of.
Lagoon (n): a stretch of saltwater separated from the sea by a low sandbank or coral reef.
Wetland (n): land consisting of marshes or swamps; saturated land.
Barge (n): a flat-bottomed boat for carrying freight, typically on canals and rivers, either under its own power or towed by another.
Marshy (adj): characteristic of or resembling a marsh; waterlogged.
Brink (n): an extreme edge of land before a steep or vertical slope.
Crest (n): a comb or tuft of feathers, fur, or skin on the head of a bird or other animal.
Dashing (v): run or travel somewhere in a great hurry.
Sediment (n): matter that settles to the bottom of a liquid; dregs.
Erosion (n): the process of eroding or being eroded by wind, water, or other natural agents.
Dredge (v): clean out the bed of (a harbor, river, or other areas of water) by scooping out mud, weeds, and rubbish with a dredge.

Documentary English

Notes on Blindness

So now at last we’ve come to this great problem, this question. The problem of mutual understanding. how can blind and sighted people truly understand each other? how can men understand women? how can the rich understand the poor? how can the old understand the young? can an we have insight into other people? this is the great question upon which the unity of our humanity hangs.

Aridity: (n) a deficiency of moisture (especially when resulting from a permanent absence of rainfall), (n) the quality of yielding nothing of value
Deprive: (v) deny (a person or place) the possession or use of something.
remorseless: without regret or guilt.
acquiescence: the reluctant acceptance of something without protest.
futile: incapable of producing any useful result; pointless.
contour: an outline, especially one representing or bounding the shape or form of something.
put up with: tolerate; endure.
scandalize: shock or horrify (someone) by a real or imagined violation of propriety or morality.
throbbing: causing pain in a series of regular beats.
swoop: (especially of a bird) move rapidly downwards through the air.
Cloak: an outdoor overgarment, typically sleeveless, that hangs loosely from the shoulders.